Wednesday, 31 October 2012

Dublin's Little Jerusalem & Irish Heritage Snippets

The Irish Jewish Museum is located in the once highly Jewish populated area of Protobello; around the South Circular Road. The former Walworth Road Synagogue, which could accommodate approximately 150 men and women, consisted of two adjoining terraced houses. Due to the movement of the Jewish people from the area to the suburbs of Dublin and with the overall decline in their numbers, the Synagogue fell into disuse and ceased to function in the early 70′s. The premises remained locked for almost fifteen years, and was brought back to life again with the establishment of the Irish Jewish Museum Committee in late 1984. The Museum was opened by the Irish born former President of Israel Dr. Chaim Herzog on the 20th June 1985 during his State visit to Ireland. It is managed by a Committee of dedicated people, varying in numbers from 20 to 30, who voluntarily give of their time.The Museum preserves an important, though small, part of Ireland’s cultural and historic heritage.
The Museum contains a substantial collection of memorabilia relating to the Irish Jewish communities and their various associations and contributions to present day Ireland.
The material relates to the last 150 years and is associated with the communities of Belfast, Cork, Londonderry, Drogheda, Dublin, Limerick & Waterford. The Museum is divided into several distinct areas. In the entrance area and corridors there is a display of photographs, paintings, certificates and testimonials. The ground floor contains a general display relating to the commercial and social life of the Jewish community. A special feature adjoining the area is the kitchen depicting a typical Sabbath/Festival meal setting in a Jewish home in the late 19th/early 20th century in the neighborhood. Upstairs, the original Synagogue, with all its ritual fittings, is on view and also the Harold Smerling gallery containing Jewish religious objects.
While there is an abundance of written material  on James Joyce and his writings, and many people visit Dublin to follow in the footsteps of Leopold Bloom of Ulysses, nevertheless a visit to the Museum enables the Joycean follower to obtain an insight into the cultural, economic, religious & social life of the Jew in Ireland during the early 1900’s. So if you are visiting Joyce's Dublin? Then a visit to Dublin's Jewish Museum is a must. Situated one mile from the City Center the number 16 and 16A Dublin Bus will bring you to Protobello where you can disembark and follow the signs to the museum. For related reading on the Jewish community in Ireland  James Joyce, Ulysses, and the Construction of Jewish Identity: Culture, Biography, and 'the Jew' in Modernist Europe  

Dublin Loyal Tours is Failte Ireland approved; we offer an unique tour of Dublin's living heritage. Visit our website for booking information. 

Sunday, 7 October 2012

Southern Unionists & Seanad of the Irish Free State

Southern Unionist were instrumental in ensuring their representation in the Seanad of the Irish Free State. 

The 1922 Constitution provided for a Senate of 60 members directly elected. Members would serve 12 year terms, with one quarter of the house elected every three years. The members would be elected under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote in a single, nationwide, 15 seat constituency. However, to get the house started, the body's initial membership would be appointed by Dail Eireann (the lower house) and the president. To complicate matters even more, after the holding of the first direct election, the constitution was amended, so that the final three elections to the Senate occurred by a method of direct election. Therefore, in the 5 elections to the Senate to occur before its abolition, 3 different systems were used.

It was originally required that that membership of the Senate be limited to those who were over 35. Constitutional amendments made in 1928 reduced, the minimum age to 30 and the ten of office from 12 years to 9 years. Today incarnations of the modern Seanad Eireann are given a new number after each senatorial election. Thus, the current Senate elected in 2011 is known as the "Twenty-fourth Seanad". This was not the custom during the Irish Free State because the Free State Senate was elected in stages and thus considered to be in permanent session. However, as a gesture of continuity with its Free State predecessor, the first Senate elected after 1937 is numbered as the "Second Seanad". The Free State Senate, despite the occurrence of three senatorial elections before its abolition, is considered to have been a single Seanad for the duration of its existence and is thus referred for that whole period as the "First Seanad".

1922 election

Half the initial membership of the Senate was elected by the Dail under the Single transferable vote. The remaining half was appointed by the president of the Executive Council (prime Minister), W.T Cosgrave. Those elected by the Dail were divided into two equal groups by lot, one assigned terms of 3 years and the other terms of 9 year. Those appointed by the president were similarly divided and assigned terms of 6 years and 12 years. The president agreed to use his appointments in 1922 to grant extra representation to the Protestant minority in the State, most of whom were Southern Unionist, to promote inclusiveness in the new Free State. As a result, of the sixty members of the first Senate, as well as 36 Roman Catholics, their were 20 Protestants, 3 Quakers and 1 Jew. It contained 7 peers, a dowager countess, 5 baronets and several knights. The New York Times remarked that the first senate was "representative of all classes", though it has been described as, "the most curious political grouping in the history of the Irish State". Members included William Butler Yeats, Oliver St. John Gogarty and General Sir Bryan Mahon.

Republican opponents of the Anglo Irish Treaty also opposed the new Senate, and 37 of the senators' homes were burnt to the ground. Others were intimidated, kidnapped or almost assassinated. Nevertheless, the first Senate greatly influenced the guiding principles and legislative foundations of the new State. The first Chairman was Lord Glenavy, formerly the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1916-1921. Many of the former Unionist members of the Senate had their homes burnt and were in fear of their life;  however they still carried out their civic duty to the Irish Free State. A snippet from the Irish Times dated April 1922 gives us an insight into the political turbulence and violence through out Ireland in 1922-23 period.

"for two weeks there wasn't standing room on any of the mail boats or mail trains leaving Cork for England. All loyalist refugees, who were either feeling in terror or had been ordered out of the country".

Irish Times 1922

Visiting the Rep. of Ireland? Then why not pop into the public gallery of Parliament House; for visitor information hit on link Leinster House. Furthermore, you have the National Museum of Ireland, National Library of Ireland, all situated on the same street (Kildare Street). So why not spend  a few hours discovering literary and historical Ireland while witnessing Irish democracy at work. If you are interested in Irish and British culture and history on the Island of Ireland then visit our website we provide many links to heritage sites. In addition Dublin Loyal Tours offer guided walking tours of Dublin which include St Patrick's Cathedral. Enjoy our blog and website, we welcome feed back so feel free to contact us. For further related reading Leinster House: Seat of Dail Eireann, Seanad Eireann 

Tuesday, 25 September 2012

Wellington Monument Dublin & Snippets of Dublin Heritage

WELLINGTON MONUMENT DUBLIN, correctly named Wellington's Testimonial due to it being built during Sir Arthur Wellesley lifetime when the foundation stone was laid in 1817. However, it would not be completed till 18th June 1861. The monument is the tallest obelisk in Europe, standing at 205 feet executed in Irish Granite the architect Robert Smirke who was a founding father in Greek and Egyptian architectural revival, he designed many classical buildings in the British Isles, notably the British Museum in London. The long delay in the monuments completion was due to the short-fall in funding.

There are four bronze plagues cast from cannons captured at Waterloo; three of which have picturial representations of the "Iron Duke" career "Waterloo by Thomas Farrell and Indian War by Joseph Kirk. While the forth holds an inscription to "Civil and Religious Liberty." by John Hogan.

" Asia and Europe saved by thee proclaim
Invincible in war thy deathless name
now round thy brow the civic oak we twine
That every earthly glory may be thine"

Sir Arthur Wellesley was born in Dublin on 1st May 1769, educated in Dublin, and was married to Lady Catherine Sarah sister of Thomas Packenham 2nd Duke of Longford. The marriage took place in Wellington's family parish church of St George's which is situated on Temple Street Dublin. Wellington was a product of Anglo protestant Ireland. Educated at Wrights High School situated on Grafton Street; Bewley's world famous coffee house now occupies the building. 'Truly Wellington can be called an Irish Statesman' as a member of the Irish House of Parliament and later in his career as Prime Minister of Great Britain he saw through both houses of the Imperial Parliament the Catholic Relief Act in 1829 (Catholic emancipation).

Dublin in the 18th Century was described as the second city of the British Empire; Sir Arthur Wellesley can be proudly placed as a unique part of Dublin's British heritage. Planning a visit to Dublin? Then take time out for afternoon tea at the Merrion Hotel Dublin. The hotel occupies the Georgian townhouse where Wellington was born. Or take a trip on Luas Red Line (Dublin Tram System) out to the Phoenix Park disembark at the Collins Barracks Museum Luas stop. The obelisk of the Wellington Monument rises up above the tree line on Parkgate St the monument is five minute walk from the Luas stop. Within one square mile of the monument lies Killmainham Royal Hospital (Gallery of Modern Art) Killmainham Jail Museum, Dublin Zoo. The whole area holds many  heritage locations. So enjoy your time out in Dublin. aim to provide as many links to informative heritage websites. In additions we offer guided walking tours of Dublin which includes admission into St Patrick's Cathedral. All our guides are approved by Failte Ireland Tourism Agency. Related reading on Wellington Maxims and Opinions of Field-Marshal His Grace the Duke of Wellington, Selected From His Writings and Speeches During a Public Life of More Than Half a Century 

Wednesday, 22 August 2012

Zoological Gardens & Snippets of Dublin Heritage

Their is not a citizen of Dublin's fare city that those not hold fond memories of a childhood day out at Dublin Zoo. One of the oldest zoos in the world, established in 1830 when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland granted the zoological society use of a portion of Phoenix Park; the purpose of creating a menagerie. The area of the zoo was three and half acres, and with an additional four acres of lake. The architect of London Zoo Decimus Burton prepared plans for the Dublin Zoo for a fee of £75.

In 1841 an admission price of a penny was introduced and more than 81,000 people paid for entrance to the zoo. In 1844 the zoo received its first giraffe and in 1855 it bought its first pair of lions. Most famous loin of Dublin Zoo can be seen on the MGM Logo, the lion was filmed in Dublin zoo. The Zoo has-had some success in breeding lions. In fact, from 1857 to 1965, some 593 cubs were born in Dublin Zoo; more than any other zoo in the world.

In 1994 the minster for finance, Bertie Ahearn TD, approved a massive £15 million investment for Dublin's zoological gardens over ten years. Which seen the development of the African Plans. The new area allows animals of African origin to roam more freely. This investment has made the zoo one of the most popular tourist attraction in Dublin City. Furthermore, if you are planning to visit the zoo, there are many other historic attractions within walking distance. Collins Barracks Museum, and the Wellington Monument Phoenix Park visitor center is ideal for picking up information on heritage attractions in the area.

Chris Thackaberry historian and Failte Ireland approved tour guide. Visit Irish Heritage Tours for information on visiting Island of Ireland. I have placed many links into my articles so explore Irelands history and heritage and enjoy.

Sunday, 12 August 2012

St Patrick's Cathedral Dublin & Glorious Revolution

St Patrick's Cathedral during the 1680s makes for an interesting study, specially for those of us whom are interested in the whole period of the Glorious Revolution. At a time when liberty of conscience, and the independence of the cathedral was under attack from King James's regime and the Roman Catholic church.

The death of Charles II in 1665 brought his Catholic brother, James II, to the throne. At first the signs of change were muted. The protestant lord lieutenant, Lord Clarendon, attempted to soothe fears and after the initial concerns at the accession of a Catholic many behaved as though no significance had occurred. However, in January 1687 during the dean's visitation, Batholomew Isaac, one of the vicars choral who had been appointed in 1685, was found to be negligent in his duties and was dismissed, to which he responded that he had "embraced the Catholic religion being that of his sovereign, which forbade him to pray or to officiate with the chapter at divine service." Isaac appealed the decision to the King and received a letter for his reinstatement with a dispensation from serving in the choir. The dean and chapter refused to reinstate him.

The death of Dean Worth in April 1688 was potentially disastrous for St Patrick's cathedral since, given the asertion of the right of appointment by the crown under James II. It seemed that St Patrick's would fall under Roman Catholic control in the way that Christ Church Cathedral had done earlier in the same year. However, King James delayed in appointing a dean, apparently wishing to keep the deanery vacant so that he could use the income for his own ends. Funding his standing army being one reson. The chapter moved independently by electing William King , then chancellor of the cathedral, as president. In effect King was acting Dean. The chapter then petitioned the lord deputy, Richard Talbot, earl of Tyrconnell, for an election but this was refused citing the crown's claim to the right of presentation. It seems that the lord deputy intended to keep the deanery vacant, thus depleting the number of Church of Ireland clergy and securing income for the crown.

In a bold move in January 1689 the chapter acted again in defense of the reformed faith and independence of the cathedral, by asking the archbishop for permission to hold an election, based on the chapter's right to be able to elect the dean, and William King was duly appointed dean and installed in February 1689. The Church of Ireland A History of the Church of Ireland 1691-2001 responded promptly to fill the resulting vacancy in the chancellorship by appointing Samuel Foley. Not only was the Williamite war at its height in Ireland; with the siage of Londonderry, but there was real resistance to the rule of King James in Dublin specially within the chapter of St Patrick's cathedral.

Whatever limited victory had been achieved by the chapter of the cathedral this was negated by Dean Kings arrest and imprisonment in the tower of Dublin Castle in July 1689 by King James Jacobite forces then in Dublin. King moved quickly in appointing Henry Price as his sub-dean. This was clearly a dangerous situation not only for the dean but for the whole chapter and the reformed faith. On 22 Oct 1689 only three members of the chapter appeared for a meeting to deal with matters relating to the diocese of which it was custodian. Two days later only four were present at the adjourned meeting and three had sent proxies. The situation was all the more dangerous since Catholic clergy were collecting 'tithes' from protestants at St Patrick's. Fear of arrest ran through every protestant house hold of Dublin.

The Light of Liberty Shines: The battle of the Boyne 1st July 1690 opened Dublin up to the Williamite Army. On 5th July King William III entered the city and rode "in great splendor" to St Patrick's where a Te deume was sung and Dean William King preached before the King. Why St Patrick's cathedral should have been chosen for this honor over the diocesan cathedral of Christ Church is not clear. It may well be that the position of Christ Church was felt to be compromised since it had been seized by the Catholics and used for Mass while St Patrick's resisted and held out against the Jacobite regime. In the months after the battle of the Boyne was marked by a series of sermons at St Patrick's that had the distinction of being printed. Both the 23 Oct and 5 Nov sermons preached there were printed and on the 16 Nov another thanksgiving service for the preservation of William III was also preached there it to was printed. Many of the French Hugonotes whom fled the city to take up arms with William of Orange came back to their homes in the "Tenters" area of the city. One of the first Williamite societies was established in this old French area of Dublin "the aldermen of Skinner Ally". The economic life of the cathedral and the city blossomed in the 18th century. Within seventy years after Williams victory, Dublin went from being a minor trading city in the British Isles to being the second city of the British Empire.

On visiting St Patrick's you are not only visiting a cathedral but a whole community. As the life of the cathedral is firmly set within the Church of Ireland community. There's many interesting items to be viewed covering 800 years of the cathedral's history. However due to the nature of this article " The Glorious Revolution" I'll bring your attention only to two items. The chair upon which King William III sat during service, and the tomb of General Schomberg, which is situated in Lady's Chapel; who's epitaph was crafted by one of the most famous deans of the Cathedral, Johnathan Swift. The area around the cathedral makes for interesting history which I will cover in future articles i.e Dublin Conservative Club, protestant Hugonotes of the Tenters. You will note that I place many links into my articles so please explore and enjoy Dublin's unique history.

Chris Thackaberry historian Failte Ireland & Dublin Tourism approved Tour Guide. Historical Walking Tours of Dublin including St Patrick's Cathedral and Dublin's Williamite Trail. book through Recommended reading on the history of St Patrick's The Monuments in St Patricks Cathedral Dublin

Wednesday, 1 August 2012


At the outbreak of the Rising on Monday 14th April 1916, the unarmed DMP were recalled from duty in the streets of Dublin and confined to their stations. On 29 April a state of martial law was proclaimed The Dublin Metropolitan Police, though unarmed, had three of its members killed and seven wounded during the Rising of 1916: Four DMP Constables though unarmed, received the King's Police Medal in recognition of their gallantry and service in arresting looters and insurgents during the rebellon, Ser. Patrick Haugh, Con. Thomas Barret, Con, James H. Coulter, Con. John Barton received the King's medal. Dublin Metropolitan Police

D.M.P Constables whom gave their lives in service.
"Constable James Obrien, DMP 9862 (168B), who was on duty at Cork Hill entrance to upper Castle Yard was shot through the face between 11am and 12 am on the 24 th April by an insurgent by the name of O'Casey. He was an actor in the Abbey theater; no relation to the playwright of the same name. Constable O'Brien was born in Kilfergus, Co. Limerick, in 1886 and had 21 years service."

"Constable Michael Lahiff, DMP 11047 (125D), who was on duty in St Stephens Green West was shot by the insurgents at about 12 noon on the 24th April. He received three shots one to the chest and two to the grin while he lay on the ground. He was brought to the Meat Hospitial where he died shortly after his admission. He was born in Kilmurry, Co. Clare, in 1887 and had five years' service."

"Constable William Frith, DMP 10175 (174C) was shot dead by a bullet through the head in a bedroom of store Street police station on 27th April. He was born in Clara, Co. Offaly, in 1878 and had over 17 years service."

"Constable Edward Dunphy, DMP 9804 (35C) was taken prisoner by the Sinn Fein insurgents in the vicinity of Sackville Street (O'connell St) on 24th April and brought to the GPO. he was put out by the insurgents on the 28th. Whilst crossing princes Street he received a bullet to the back and pellets to the side of his face. He was born in Offerlane, Co. Laois, and at the time had 23 years service."

"Constable Thomas Donohoe DMAP 9607 (30D), while passing on duty through Christchurch Place between 12 noon and 1pm. On 24th April, received a gunshort wound on the left forarm. He was medically treated at the Bridewell station and was on sick report from his injuries for 27 days. He was born in 1868 in Drumlumman, Co. Cavan"

Book shops are full of historical literature covering the 1916 rebellion and its leaders. However... there is very little written on the D.M.P and the innocent citizens whom fell pray to the guns of the insurgents in 1916. The typical view that is taken on the rebellion can be summed up in one sweeping statement "the city that fourth an Empire". The reality was, 2000 insurgents went onto the streets of Dublin and murdered their fellow Irish men and women. Many of whom were Nationalist and supporters of home rule. In short these insurgents murdered unarmed policemen and civilians in 1916. It must be stated that the leaders of the rebellion were not executed for their republicanism, nor for the words crafted in the proclamation of independence. They were executed for murder and the brake-down of civil society which was witnessed over the week long rebellion.
By the time we reached the terrorist gangs of Michael Collins (1919-1921) every office of civic authority in Ireland was made redundant by the law of the gun. To the extent that when political agreement was reached, through the Anglo Irish Treaty. 704 D.M.P constables retired under article X of the Anglo Irish Treaty. This represented 50% of the Dublin Metropolitan Police

Chris Thackaberry Irish Historian and Failte Ireland & Dublin Tourism approved tour guide. If you are visiting Dublin Castle then pop into the Garda Museum . For information on historical and literary walking tours visit

Saturday, 28 July 2012

A Bit of Ancient Greece in Auld Dublin

On my daily trips to Dublin, which takes around two hours from Belfast. I like to avail of the time provided to read. My most reason book Full Circle: How the Classical World Came Back to Us This book opened my eyes to how familiar our lives are in relation to the ancient Romans and Greeks. Furthermore, how over the past 1500 years society has come full circle in the way we conduct ourselves in politics religion, and sexual morality. Even down to our thought processes. I was quite surprised to read that the first revival of the concept of spa and health center on the British Isles, was developed by an Anglo-Irishman in the 1820s. Dr Richard Barter of Cooldaniel Co. Cork, he opened the spa at St Anne's Hills, outside Blarney.

If you are visiting Dublin and are looking for a little bit of Greece? I recommend you visit our National Gallery admission is free and the collection holds many reverences to ancient Greek-art and philosophy. Much of Dublin's Goragian architecture is influenced by the ancient world. A short walk from the gallery is St Stephens Church. It is only one of many principle examples of the Greek revival in Dublin architecture. The church is better known to Dubliners as the pepper-canister, due to John Bowden's architectural influences. Mainly taken from the Erechtheion (temple of the four winds) Athens, and the chorogic monument of Lysicates. Apart form being a place of worship, St Stephan's plays host to classical music events through out the year. Which ties in nicely with the monument lysicrates, as it was dedicated to the arts. There is also the Georgian House museum which is situated on the same street (Mount St Up) The museum provides the visitor with a full picture of the whole social development of Georgian Dublin, from architecture to politics.

I have many cultural links on my website i.e Georgian Society, Trinity College Dublin, so if you are looking for heritage links visit Dublin Loyal Tours. I have also copied the words of Pericles speech, I'm of the opinion that every politician on the Island of Ireland should have this speech framed and placed in their office.

Pericles Speech On A Democratic Society

"Our political system dose not compete with institutions which are
elsewhere in force. We do not copy our neighbors, but try to be an example. Our administration favors the many instead of the few: this is way it is called democracy. The laws afford equal justice to all alike in their private disputes, but we do not ignore claim of excellence. When a citizen distinguishes himself, then he will be called to serve the State, in preference to others, not as a matter of privilege, but a reward of merit: and poverty is no bar... The freedom we enjoy extends also to ordinary life; we are not suspicius of one another, and do not nag our naighbours if he chooses to go his own way... But this freedom does not make us lawless, We are taught to respect the magistrates and the laws, and never to forget we must protect the injured. And we are also taught to observe the unwritten laws whose sanction lies only in the universal feeling of what is right.

Our city is throen open to the world; we never expel a foreigner... We are free to live exactly as we please, and yet we are always ready to face any danger... We love beauty without indulging in fancies, and although we try to improve our intellect, this does not weaken our will... To admit one's poverty is no disgrace with us; but we consider it an disgraceful not to make an effort to avoid it. An Athenians citizen does not neglect public affairs when attending to his private business... We consider a man who takes no interest in State not as harmless, but as useless; and although only a few may originate a policy; we are all able to judge it. We do not look upon discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of political action, but as an indispensable preliminary to acting wisely... We believe that happiness is the fruit of freedom and freedom that of valour, and we do not shrink from danger of war... To sum up. I claim that Athens is the school of Hellas, and that the individual Athenian" grows up to develop a happy reversibility, a readiness for emergencies, and self reliance. Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy

Chris Thackaberry: Irish historian and Failte Ireland & Dublin Tourism approved tour guide. For information on Irish history and guided tours visit

Sunday, 22 July 2012

Patrick Pearse & The Birth of Irish Fascism

When we look at the life of Patrick Pearse we focus on defining the man as the Irish teacher, barrister, poet, or writer, and the man who claimed nationhood. But few Irish historians will even touch upon Pearse as the Roman Catholic nationalist zealot. Or ask the question 'was 1916 rebellion the birth of Irish fascism'? The title of Ruth Dudley Edwards Book "Patrick Pearse: The Triumph of Failure " aptly describes the life and dead of Pearse, and the republicanism which he and his fellow rebel leaders advocated in 1916.

Born into a lower middle class family Pearse was influenced by the Gaelic revival of the 1890's and very much a by-product of Celtic Nationalism which emanated from that revival. A resumption that defined Irishness on cultural and religious grounds; to be thoroughly Irish, one had to be thoroughly Roman Catholic and nationalist. There was no room for democracy, bearing in mind that in 1916 Ireland had a fully functional democracy. Nor was there room for diversity of national identity in Pearse's republic. As an "idealist psychopath" Pearse armed his generation to murder, mostly unarmed citizens and children, and by doing so he set in train the legacy of republican violence for political ends.

Pearse the fascist educator: his pupils were to, [P. Pearse] "work-hard for their fatherland and if it should ever be necessary, die for it". Thirty pupils and four teachers of St Enda's school would follow their commandant general of the army of the Irish republic and president of the self-appointed provisional government into the GPO in 1916. These young boys where ahead of their time when it came to their education, for St Enda's school held an educational ethos; like what was witnessed in fascist Europe in the 1930s, with an educational focus on physical fitness, mythology, drama, pageantry, and above all militarism.

These young minds where well brain washed. [P. Pearse] "we may make mistakes in the beginning and shoot the wrong people(...) a nation that views blood in horror has lost its manhood. Pearse's ideology thought young people to rely on the gun and to disregard everything else. But his ideology went further in 1922, by providing a template for creating the mono-cultural Irish State, based on work, religion, motherland. The blood cult of physical force republicanism, and the necessity for blood sacrifice would poison many young Irish minds, and pave a murderous path with the lives of the innocent. The legacy of Pearse's intent, is best summed up by one of his own, nationalist writer O'Hegaty who outlines in his book, Victory of Sian Fein (1924) "transforming it (Ireland) into a physical slaughter house' characterized by contempt for life, for decency, for charity and tolerance." It is interesting to note that O'Hegaty is writing form the point of the citizen and society, rather than the propaganda view of 1916 and the war of independence, which focuses on the patriot martyrs, flying columns, and great prison escapes.

The cult of 1916: as we approach the centenary of the 1916 Rebellion we will find ourselves a-wash with books and social events commemorating the whole bloody saca of the week long rebellion. View historians will highlight nor question the fundamental heresy against a democratic society; 'the use of violence to achieve a political goal'. In buff-ed up reverence to Pearse and the leaders of 1916 rebellion, W.B, Yeats is often quoted "a terrible beauty is born " You will never hear his words from Yeats's 1926 Senate speech; on the passing of the Censorship Bill, Divorce bill, Contraception bill. For Ireland now resembles [W.B, Yeats]"medieval Spain". W.B. Yeats Seanad Eireann Speeches 1922-28

The 1916 rebellion failed, furthermore the ideology of Peares was a failure. For Ulster is firmly set within the united kingdom. The economic and political future of the Irish Republic rests at the center of the European Union. So let 1916 be just a plip in the Nations history. Let not our nation be defined by it, let it be just a tourist attraction. Where you can take a 1916 walking tour and hear the stories of flying columns and great prison escapes, or a visit to kilmainham Jail where you can see the miraculous Republican wounds which will never heal. "if we have not lost our stamina then your victory will be brief, and your defeat final, and when it comes this Nation maybe transformed" beautiful words from senator Yeats in 1926, and in 2012 Ireland has "changed, changed utterly".

Chris Thackaberry Irish historian and Failte Ireland approved tour guide. If you are looking to research Irish history then visit our website we have many informative cultural links to heritage agencies ie National Library of Ireland, Trinity College Dublin.